Interesting And Lesser Known Facts About Linux

– Only 2 per cent of the code, which was originally written by Torvalds, remains in the current Linux kernel.

– Linux is used in government offices in many countries. In India, Linux is also used for educational purposes in Tamil Nadu.

– The top 10 supercomputers in the world use Linux. Linux accounts for 33.8 per cent of the world’s data servers compared to the operating systems from Microsoft, which account for only 7.3 per cent.

– Bullet trains in Japan, the New York Stock Exchange, CERN and the San Francisco traffic control systems run on Linux.

– Some of the biggest technology related companies like Google, Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook etc. use Linux as their primary operating system.

– In 1991, the GNU project that was developed, did not have any kernels or drivers. That is why Torvalds was led towards working on the Linux kernel development.

– Hollywood director, James Cameron had said that hit movie Avataar was the first movie to be shot completely in 3D using free software on Linux-driven machines.

– The first Linux distribution to be offered by an original equipment manufacturer was Ubuntu. This was done by Dell.

– The well known and very popular digital recording system TiVo also uses Linux.

– Google’s Android operating system, which led to a revolution in the mobile phones industry, is known to be based on Linux.

– Linux itself is not an operating system, rather, it is a kernel. GNU Linus is the operating system.

– The original Linux kernel had only 10,239 lines of code, whereas, today the standard version of the kernel has only 10 million lines of code. This is growing at 10 per cent per year and nearly 4,500 lines are added to the code. In addition, about 1,500 lines in the code are altered almost everyday.

– Yggdrasil Computing Inc was the company that started commercial distribution for Linux for the first time. The freeware was launched on CDs by Yggdrasil in 1992.

– An asteroid has been named after Torvalds in order to honour him.

– A study conducted by the European Union showed that redeveloping the most recent Linux kernel would cost about $1.14 billion.

– The Linux mascot is a penguin named Tux. The name of the Penguin is based on the fact that a penguin’s body is coloured like a tuxedo. But, there are also theories that the name comes from the words Torvalds and Unix.

– The Debian operating system was the first GNU/Linux-based system, which was developed.

– Creator Torvalds originally wanted the Linux kernel to be called Freax. This could be a mix of the words free, freak and the letter X, which would indicate the fact that it resembles Unix. His friend, Ari Lemmke, who was the administrator for the FTP server that was hosting the kernel for downloads, called it the kernel of Linux Torvalds.

– The Linux kernel runs on so many operating systems that it is the most widely ported operating system in the world.

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10 Free And Helpful Linux Books

Linux distros are known for their free availability so why pay for Linux books! Here we bring 10 amazing and helpful Linux guides for free! Start downloading!

One major reason behind people opting for Linux instead of the proprietary operating system is its free and open source availability, so we wonder when the platform is all about that, why should you pay for its referential documents? So here we bring to you 10 helpful books for Linux references and that too free!

Keeping your interest in mind, we have tried including a wide spectrum of subjects including general introduction, books on specific distribution, books for programmers as well as how to create a FOSS.

Here’s the list:

1. Ubuntu Pocket Guide and Reference

Author: Keir Thomas
Format: PDF
Pages: 152

This book is a concise companion for everyday Ubuntu use. It provides a good grounding in getting to grips with the Ubuntu 8.04 and 8.10 distributions.

Covers:

– Provides good grounding on Ubuntu 8.04 and 8.10 distributions.
– Installing & Configuring Ubuntu
– Learning how to use the desktop covering logging in, layout, virtual desktops, and useful applications\
– Understanding how user accounts and the filesystem work
– Getting to grips with the command-line
– Software management including an overview of Synaptic, working with repositories, and a basic overview of compiling from source code
– Securing the system, including configuring a firewall, antivirus, and how to encrypt file and folders

Website: www.ubuntupocketguide.com

2. Two Bits

Author: Christopher M. Kelty
Format: PDF
Pages: 400

Covers:

– The history and cultural significance of Free Software
– Geeks, Recursive Publics, Protestant Reformers, Polymaths, and Transhumanists
– Describes what Free Software is and where it came from, with five chapters detailing the historical narrative of a particular kind of practice: creating a movement, sharing source code, conceptualizing openness or open systems, writing copyright (and copyleft) licenses, and coordinating collaborations
– Modulations

Website: twobits.net

3. The Linux Starter Pack

Author: Future Publishing
Format: PDF
Pages: 130

Covers:

– The Linux desktop including Compiz desktop effects
– OpenOffice.org Writer, Calc, Impress Base
– Photo editing
– Playing games
– Multimedia including using media codecs, media ripping, disc burning, creating disc inlays
– Internet: Surfing the web, instant messaging, BitTorrent downloads
– Adding software
– Software recommendations
– Printing documents
– Account management
– Security
– Glossary of technical terms

Website: www.tuxradar.com/linuxstarterpack 

4. Producing Open Source Software

Author: Karl Fogel
Format: PDF, XML, Single HTML page, Multiple HTML pages
Pages: 192

Covers:

– General advice on starting a project: Choose a Good Name, Have a Clear Mission Statement, Make it clear the Project is Free, Scope the Project
– Technical Infrastucture such as Mailing Lists, Version Control, Bug tracking, Web site
– Social and Political Infrastructure
– How to bring funding into a free software environment
– The art of good communications
– Packaging, Releasing and Daily Development
– Managing Volunteers
– Licenses, Copyrights and Patents

Website: producingoss.com 

5. Bash Guide for Beginners

Author: Machtelt Garrels
Format: PDF, HTML
Pages: 165

Covers:

– Bash scripts
– Writing and debugging scripts
– The bash environment: Shell initialization files, Variables, Quoting characters, Shell expansion, aliases
– Regular expressions
– sed stream editor
– awk programming language
– Conditional statements (if, if/then/else, if/then/elif/else, Nested if statements, Boolean operations)
– Writing interactive scripts
– Repetitive tasks
– Functions
– Catching signals

Website: tille.garrels.be/training/bash 

6. Put Yourself in Command: 

Author: Free Software Foundation
Format: PDF, Multi-page HTML
Pages: 136

Covers:

– Basic commands, including sections on permissions, manipulating processes and redirection, Absolute and relative paths
– Globbing
– Auto completion
– Piping commands
– Command History
– Command & Parameter Substitution
– Customizations
– Installing Software
– Exploration of text editors including nano, vi, vim, emacs, kedit, kwrite, kate, and gedit
– Scripting
– Programming languages including Perl, Awk, Ruby, and Python
– Command Quick Reference

Website: en.flossmanuals.net/command-line/

7. The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial

Author: James Mohr
Format: PDF
Pages: 614

Covers:

– Linux basics
– Shells and Utilities
– Editing files
– Basic system administration
– X Windowing system
– Networking (TCP-IP, DHCP, NFS, Samba, Firewalls, Technologies)
– System Monitoring
– Solving Problems

Website: sourceforge.net/projects/linkbat

8. Linux Device Drivers, Third Edition: 

Author: Jonathan Corbet, Allesandro Rubini, Greg Kroah-Hartman
Format: PDF, HTML, DocBook
Pages: 615

Covers:

– All significant changes to Version 2.6 of the Linux kernel
– Building and running modules
– Char drivers
– Debugging techniques
– Concurrency and Race conditions
– Time, Delays and Deferred Work
– Allocating Memory
– PCI & USB Drivers
– Memory Mapping and DMA
– Block & Network Drivers

Website: oreilly.com/catalog/9780596005900

9. LINUX: Rute User’s Tutorial and Exposition: 

Author: Paul Sheer
Format: PDF, HTML
Pages: 660

Covers:

– Learn how to become a skilled Linux user
– Become proverbial with the command line
– Learn about core utilities like sed and useful related skills like C programming, shell scripting, and regular expression creation
– Coverage of server software including HTTPd, Sendmail, Exim, and PostgreSQL
– Basic system administration
– Advanced shell scripting
– Networking: IP, TCP, UDP, DNS and Name Resolution, NFS

Website: rute.2038bug.com/index.html.gz

10. The Easiest Linux Guide You’ll Ever Read: 

Author: Scott Morris
Format: PDF
Pages: 160

Covers:

– How to get Linux
– Learn about the Desktop
– How to install applications
– The command line
– Explains where Linux is similar to Windows
– Explains the key differences between these two operating systems
– Dispels many myths about Linux

Website: www.math-linux.com 

Source:EFY news network

Top Five Cloud Storage Services

Cloud storage lets you access (and store) your text or other files, folders irrespective of their size. The cloud phenomenon is spreading like wild fire and of late more new cloud services have surfaced leaving us with more options to choose from. Here we share with you the top five as deemed by the experts.

 

1. Mega : It is a sequel to Megaupload. The website became active earlier this year. Kim Dotcom, the founder of Megaupload, who is stationed in Kiwiland registered this website as mega.co.nz.

Mega gives 50GB free storage. This is an encrypted service for security reasons which relies on advanced version of AES rules.

2. Ubuntu One : This is a personal service that combines personal cloud and digital world. It boasts of various services like heavy storage, storing, It includes storage, synchronisation, file and data sharing, and audio visual streaming.

With 5GB free storage, a/v streaming, there is a bonus of up to 20GB extra storage free of cost courtesy the referral programme. As of now, Ubuntu One is compatible with Windows XP and higher versions, Mac OS X 10.6, and Android platforms and a few Apple devices.

3. SpiderOak : It is used for making back up files, data sharing, data storage, and synchronisation. It uses encrypted rules for security reasons.

SpiderOak has two account types, a free version with 2 GB storage, and a paid one for higher capacity. Referral links can be created and as a bonus with every new link, you get 1GB. You can use it for Windows, Android, Mac, Linux, N900 Maemo and iOS mobile platforms.

4. Microsoft SkyDrive : From the house of Microsoft, it lets you upload files, sync them, access them from your browser.

It offers 7GB free storage for the debutants and for students it gives 3GB free storage for one year.. you can get it via SkyDrive for Windows and OS X.

5. MediaFire : It is a free file and image hosting web site that offers up to 50GB storage. MediaFire lets you form your own image galleries, view/share document, make a/v presentations. It is fit to be used as a transient podium for back up. MediaFire supports Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows on the desktops and Android and iOS on smartphones and tablets.

Source: EFY News Network

Open-source alternative for Coke!

Have you ever had a can of Coke and thought that it would taste better if it was open source? No? Well, some people have and they have created the world’s first “open source” cola. And it’s on version 1.1.3

Anybody can make the drink, modify and improve on it as they see fit, as long as the recipe is made public under the GNU General Public License. However, recipes are not copyrightable, so the legal basis for that premise is untested.

Originally released as a promotional tool to explain open source software, the drink became a success and the company that made it sold 150,000 cans, and the creators became better known for the cola than for the software they were trying to promote!

Source-Wikipedia

Handy Terminal Keyboard Shortcuts

Take these short-cuts handy to increase your productivity.

Cursor Movement Control
Ctrl-a: Move cursor to the start of a line
Ctrl-e: Move cursor to the end of a line
Ctrl-Left/Right: Navigate word by word (may not work in all terminals)

Modify Text
Ctrl-w: Delete the whole word to the left of the cursor
Ctrl-k: Erase to end of line
Ctrl-u: Erase to beginning of line

Scrolling/Buffer Control
Shift-PageUp/PageDown: Scroll through current buffer
Ctrl-s: Pause terminal output (program will keep running)
Ctrl-q: Release terminal output (after being paused)
Ctrl-l: Clears the screen. Use this instead of the clear command.

History
Ctrl-r: Search the history (enter to run the command once found)

Bonus Tip: Use ‘!!’ command to run last command and ‘!com’ to run the last command starting with ‘com’.

Process Control
Ctrl-d: Exit
Ctrl-c: Kill the current process
Ctrl-z: Put the current process in the background (fg will restore it)

if any other Short cut key comes to my mind, It will be posted on Social media @facebook @twitter.

Source: thelinuxdaily

Watch Movies in Your Linux Terminal Window

Linux console is something really special :: we can watch videos and we can also listen to radio with it.

It may sound strange, but you may watch videos without GUI. And MPlayer will be your assistant. MPlayer is a powerful multimedia player for GNU Linux.

In terminal the video appears in ASCII code format. The video output is little bit clear in case of Cartoon videos because it consists of less details while on the other hand the HD videos or movie trailers etc.. may not be clear but anyways its FUN to try playing videos on terminal.

You may ask what do we need that for? Well, the first reason is to show Linux capabilities, and then, you never know what you might need. So, here we go.

  • The first step i am gonna do is install Mplayer and FBI image viewer(for displaying image in terminal)
yum install mplayer fbi

mplayer

Then to actually watch video in terminal use the following syntax, replacing the File name of your video.

mplayer -vo caca MovieName.mp4

The “caca” command is actually the color text driver– you could also use ” -vo aa ” instead for black & white.

The video output will be somewhat like this :

fastmp

Communicate with other users in your terminal using “write” command

If you are only user on a system this tutorial is not meant for you. However, you can learn from it. This tutorial is meant for the system admin who might need users information and need to communicate with users. System admin can actually do so using the Terminal with “write” utility.

who: list users on system

This utility simply list the users who is using the system. Remember, all the users who is using the system must be connected to a network with logged in date and time.

who

w: list users on system(Detail information)

This utility also list the logged in users with the the additional information on how long the user has been idle, how much computer processor time each user has used during login session and the commands each user are running.

There’s a similar utility like “w” called “finger.” You need to install finger utility in your system. It is available in repository of all Linux systems.

w

Write: send messages to logged in user of same system

This is the utility that we are waiting for. Write sends a message to another logged in user. The syntax is:

write username [terminal]

The username is the username you want to communicate with. The terminal is optional which is the device name. You can display the user names and device names of logged in users by using who, w or finger commands.

To establish the two way communications both the user should execute write command. To quit messaging hit “Ctrl+D”.

By default, accepting messages are turned off for security reasons. You must allow other users to send you message. Use the following command:

mesg y

You can block messages using following command:

mesg n